高分子 Vol.61 No.4
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特集 グリーンポリマー -再生可能資源に基づく高分子-
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Polymers with Carbon Dioxide as a Monomer
中野 幸司・野崎 京子
<要旨> エポキシドと二酸化炭素との交互共重合による脂肪族ポリカルボナート合成は、二酸化炭素を有効利用する技術として注目されている。本稿では,均一系金属錯体に基づく高性能触媒の開発とそれらの触媒を用いたポリマーの構造および物性制御という観点から、最近の研究例を概説する。
Keywords: Epoxide / Carbon Dioxide / Copolymerization / Polycarbonate / Homogeneous Metal Catalyst
Bio-based Polymeric Materials Based on Plant Oils
宇山 浩
Hiroshi UYAMA
<要旨> 植物油脂を基盤とするバイオベースポリマーの最新の研究事例を紹介する。エポキシ化油脂を用いて高性能・高機能のネットワークポリマーが創製され、バイオフィラーなどの複合化技術により油脂ポリマーの物性が向上している。さらに、大豆油やヒマシ油を原料とするポリオールが開発され、ポリウレタンフォームやバイオプラスチック用可塑剤に応用されている。
Keywords: Plant Oil / Epoxidized Plant Oil / Coating / Polyol / Polyurethane
New Developments of Biodegradable Biopolyesters
岩田 忠久
Tadahisa IWATA
<要旨> 糖や植物油などのバイオマスから微生物により生合成され、環境中のほかの微生物が分泌する分解酵素によって生分解される微生物産生ポリエステルが、ポリ乳酸に続く生分解性バイオマスプラスチックとして注目されている。本稿では、微生物産生ポリエステルの基礎物性、生産事例、基礎および応用研究開発の動向および今後の展望について紹介する。
Keywords: Microbial Polyesters / Polyhydroxyalkanoate / Mechanical Properties / Strong Fibers / Enzymatic Degradation / Biocompatibility / Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Development of High Melting Point Polylactide
栗原 英資
<要旨> A polylactide with higher melting point than the conventional polylactide was developed. Its production depends on the formation of stable stereocomplex crystals that are received in the melt processes. Moreover, both the hydrolysis resistance and the crystallization speed in the molding process are improved. These improvements lead us to develop durable goods with the polylactide.
Keywords: Polylactide / Stereocomplex Crystal / Melting Point / Hydrolysis Resistance / Crystallinity
Development of Highly Function Bioplastics Used for Electronic Products: Polylactic Acid Compounds and Cardanol-Bonded Cellulose Resin Performing Functions for Electronic Products
位地 正年
Masatoshi IJI
<要旨> To use bioplastics in electronic equipments, we have developed advanced polylactic acid (PLA) composites by using unique additives while fully preserving high biomass-based component ratio and chemical safety. Furthermore, a bioplastic composed of non-food plant resources with stable supply was produced by bonding cellulose with cardanol, a primary component of cashew nut shells.
Keywords: Bioplastics / Polylactic Acid / Cellulose / Cardanol / Electronic Equipments
Development of Microbial Biodegradable Plastic
三木 康弘
Yasuhiro MIKI
<要旨> KANEKA Biopolymer AONILEX® is Poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate), an entirely bio-based and biodegradable plastic produced by microorganism. Its pilot-scale production has been started in May 2011 at a capacity of 1,000 MT/y to develop innovative production technologies, new product applications and experimental sales programs. Its unique properties and possible applications are described.
Keywords: Bio-Based / Biodegradable / Anaerobic / Aerobic / Compostable / Polyhydroxyalkanoate
Biotechnology for a More Sustainable Society and Polymers Based on Bio-1,3 Propanediol
賀来 群雄
Mureo KAKU
<要旨> Considering current mega-trends, we are facing big challenges. Bio-technology is a vital tool to make our society more sustainable. 1,3-Propanediol (PDO) is the first commercialized products from DuPont's advanced biotechnology. Bio-based PDO can be used as monomer of various polymers.
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) derived from bio-PDO offering unique functions, is one of the most popular biopolymers used in textiles, carpets, molded parts and films.
Keywords: Mega-trend / Sustainable / Bio-1,3-propanediol / Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate) / Textile / Carpet / Injection Parts / Film
ヒマシ油由来エンジニアリングプラスチックポリアミド11 を用いた新規材料開発と用途展開
Polyamide 11: New Material and Application Development of Castor Oil Based Engineering Plastic
宮保 淳
Atsushi MIYABO
<要旨> Polyamide 11, one of the oldest bio-based polyamide using castor oil as raw material, has been used for many applications such as automotive, electronics and sports. Recent new material development based on C11 chemistry has been creating new high added value market to replace conventional petroleum based engineering plastics.
Keywords: Polyamide 11 / Castor Oil / 11-Aminoundecanoic Acid / High Temperature Polyamide / Odd Number Polyamide / Polyamide Elastomer
Development of Transparent Engineering Plastics “DURABIO®” from Renewable Resources
中田 道生・駒谷 隆志
Michio NAKATA, Takashi KOMAYA
<要旨> DURABIO®, a transparent bio-based engineering plastic, developed by Mitsubishi Chemical, is not only biomass-derived, but also possesses excellent optical properties in combination with high UV resistance (no discoloration) and puncture impact at levels higher than conventional transparent plastics. In 2010, we started to deliver samples from our new pilot plant, and will start commercial production and sales of DURABIO® in 2012.
Keywords: Sustainability / Bio-based Plastic / Renewable Resources / Engineering Plastic / Durability / Isosorbide / Melt Polymerization
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
My Love with Polymer
大内 誠
Makoto OUCHI
<要旨> In this article, let me introduce how I have fallen in “love” with the polymer world. I was assigned to Prof. Sawamoto's laboratory in Kyoto University when I was in my undergraduate senior year. Thereafter, I had been doing research on “stereospecific cationic polymerization with designed Lewis acid catalysts” to learn how to grow well-defined polymers. After getting my PhD degree, I joined Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. to work on the development of poly(lactic acid)-based automobile resins. Through this project, I learned how to treat polymers as well as the synthetic methodologies, and realized again the importance of structural control over primary structures.
My professional polymer life changed dramatically upon my former teacher's invitation to accept an academic position in his laboratory. One of my current projects here is “sequence control” of synthetic polymers. My love story with polymer will be far from over in the quest of the ideal structure.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Mendable Polymers with a Viewpoint of Reaction Kinetics
吉江 尚子
<要旨> Polymer materials always suffer environmental stress and get damaged. Mendable polymers are polymers having capability to repair cracks, scratches and other damages based on dynamic bonds. Mendability offers extension of working life and enhancement of safety performance of polymer materials. Their mending, which is induced by the reversible formation of dynamic bonds bridging the crack surfaces, requires two conditions of reaction kinetics: thermodynamic stability of the dynamic bond and molecular mobility of the free functional groups generated by the dissociation of the dynamic bonds at the damaged surfaces. In this review, the mending process of polymers is outlined from a viewpoint of these two conditions.
Keywords: Self-Healing Polymers / Mendable Polymers / Molecular Mobility / Reaction Kinetics / Dynamic Bonds / Reversibility