POLYMERS Vol.61 No.4
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Green Polymers: Polymers from Renewable Resources
COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Polymers with Carbon Dioxide as a Monomer Koji NAKANO, Kyoko NOZAKI
<Abstract> Copolymerization of epoxides with carbon dioxide to produce aliphatic polycarbonates is a promising process for CO2 utilization. This article introduces recent developments in polymerization catalysts based on homogeneous metal complexes and control of polymer structures and properties.
Keywords: Epoxide / Carbon Dioxide / Copolymerization / Polycarbonate / Homogeneous Metal Catalyst
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Bio-based Polymeric Materials Based on Plant Oils Hiroshi UYAMA
<Abstract> This account deals with development of bio-based polymers based on plant oils. Network polymers were obtained from epoxidized soybean and linseed oils by ring-opening polymerization or curing with amines or acid anhydrides. Allyl and alkynyl groups were introduced in soybean oil, and these derivatives were subjected to crosslinking with maleic anhydride and diazide, respectively. The oil polymer composites were synthesized using inorganics such as silica and clay and organics such as cellulose fibers and rosin derivatives, and their physical and thermal properties were improved. A bio-based coating for roofs was developed from epoxidized plant oil-modified acrylic polyol. Bio-based polyols were prepared using soybean and castor oils as starting material for polyurethanes. Branched poly(lactic acid) bearing a castor oil core was used for preparation of the polyurethane form. It also acted as plasticizer and nucleating agent for poly(lactic acid).
Keywords: Plant Oil / Epoxidized Plant Oil / Coating / Polyol / Polyurethane
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New Developments of Biodegradable Biopolyesters Tadahisa IWATA
<Abstract> Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is biosynthesized from sugar, plant oils, etc. and accumulated by a wide variety of microorganisms as an intracellular carbon and energy storage materials. PHA is extensively studied as a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. This article introduces fundamental properties, industrial production, high-functionability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and future aspects.
Keywords: Microbial Polyesters / Polyhydroxyalkanoate / Mechanical Properties / Strong Fibers / Enzymatic Degradation / Biocompatibility / Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
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COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Development of High Melting Point Polylactide Hideshi KURIHARA
<Abstract> A polylactide with higher melting point than the conventional polylactide was developed. Its production depends on the formation of stable stereocomplex crystals that are received in the melt processes. Moreover, both the hydrolysis resistance and the crystallization speed in the molding process are improved. These improvements lead us to develop durable goods with the polylactide.
Keywords: Polylactide / Stereocomplex Crystal / Melting Point / Hydrolysis Resistance / Crystallinity
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Development of Highly Function Bioplastics Used for Electronic Products: Polylactic Acid Compounds and Cardanol-Bonded Cellulose Resin Performing Functions for Electronic Products Masatoshi IJI
<Abstract> To use bioplastics in electronic equipments, we have developed advanced polylactic acid (PLA) composites by using unique additives while fully preserving high biomass-based component ratio and chemical safety. Furthermore, a bioplastic composed of non-food plant resources with stable supply was produced by bonding cellulose with cardanol, a primary component of cashew nut shells.
Keywords: Bioplastics / Polylactic Acid / Cellulose / Cardanol / Electronic Equipments
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Development of Microbial Biodegradable Plastic Yasuhiro MIKI
<Abstract> KANEKA Biopolymer AONILEX® is Poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate), an entirely bio-based and biodegradable plastic produced by microorganism. Its pilot-scale production has been started in May 2011 at a capacity of 1,000 MT/y to develop innovative production technologies, new product applications and experimental sales programs. Its unique properties and possible applications are described.
Keywords: Bio-Based / Biodegradable / Anaerobic / Aerobic / Compostable / Polyhydroxyalkanoate
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Biotechnology for a More Sustainable Society and Polymers Based on Bio-1,3 Propanediol Mureo KAKU
<Abstract> Considering current mega-trends, we are facing big challenges. Bio-technology is a vital tool to make our society more sustainable. 1,3-Propanediol (PDO) is the first commercialized products from DuPont's advanced biotechnology. Bio-based PDO can be used as monomer of various polymers.
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) derived from bio-PDO offering unique functions, is one of the most popular biopolymers used in textiles, carpets, molded parts and films.
Keywords: Mega-trend / Sustainable / Bio-1,3-propanediol / Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate) / Textile / Carpet / Injection Parts / Film
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Polyamide 11: New Material and Application Development of Castor Oil Based Engineering Plastic Atsushi MIYABO
<Abstract> Polyamide 11, one of the oldest bio-based polyamide using castor oil as raw material, has been used for many applications such as automotive, electronics and sports. Recent new material development based on C11 chemistry has been creating new high added value market to replace conventional petroleum based engineering plastics.
Keywords: Polyamide 11 / Castor Oil / 11-Aminoundecanoic Acid / High Temperature Polyamide / Odd Number Polyamide / Polyamide Elastomer
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Development of Transparent Engineering Plastics “DURABIO®” from Renewable Resources Michio NAKATA, Takashi KOMAYA
<Abstract> DURABIO®, a transparent bio-based engineering plastic, developed by Mitsubishi Chemical, is not only biomass-derived, but also possesses excellent optical properties in combination with high UV resistance (no discoloration) and puncture impact at levels higher than conventional transparent plastics. In 2010, we started to deliver samples from our new pilot plant, and will start commercial production and sales of DURABIO® in 2012.
Keywords: Sustainability / Bio-based Plastic / Renewable Resources / Engineering Plastic / Durability / Isosorbide / Melt Polymerization
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Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
My Love with Polymer Makoto OUCHI
<Abstract> In this article, let me introduce how I have fallen in “love” with the polymer world. I was assigned to Prof. Sawamoto's laboratory in Kyoto University when I was in my undergraduate senior year. Thereafter, I had been doing research on “stereospecific cationic polymerization with designed Lewis acid catalysts” to learn how to grow well-defined polymers. After getting my PhD degree, I joined Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. to work on the development of poly(lactic acid)-based automobile resins. Through this project, I learned how to treat polymers as well as the synthetic methodologies, and realized again the importance of structural control over primary structures.
My professional polymer life changed dramatically upon my former teacher's invitation to accept an academic position in his laboratory. One of my current projects here is “sequence control” of synthetic polymers. My love story with polymer will be far from over in the quest of the ideal structure.
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Front-Line Polymer Science
Mendable Polymers with a Viewpoint of Reaction Kinetics Naoko YOSHIE
<Abstract> Polymer materials always suffer environmental stress and get damaged. Mendable polymers are polymers having capability to repair cracks, scratches and other damages based on dynamic bonds. Mendability offers extension of working life and enhancement of safety performance of polymer materials. Their mending, which is induced by the reversible formation of dynamic bonds bridging the crack surfaces, requires two conditions of reaction kinetics: thermodynamic stability of the dynamic bond and molecular mobility of the free functional groups generated by the dissociation of the dynamic bonds at the damaged surfaces. In this review, the mending process of polymers is outlined from a viewpoint of these two conditions.
Keywords: Self-Healing Polymers / Mendable Polymers / Molecular Mobility / Reaction Kinetics / Dynamic Bonds / Reversibility
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