高分子 Vol.61 No.8
>> Chinese >> English >> Japanese >> Korean
特集 次世代医療を拓くナノ粒子の世界
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Internal Structures and Pharmacological Effects of Polymer Micelles
秋葉 勇・横山 昌幸
Isamu AKIBA, Masayuki YOKOYAMA
<要旨> 高分子ミセルは薬物送達システム(DDS)のキャリアーとして期待されており、いくつかの系が臨床試験に達している。DDSにおいて薬理効果を増強するために、キャリアーのサイズや内部の薬剤分布の制御が重要になる。本稿では、ポリエチレングリコール-b-ポリアミノ酸誘導体の高分子ミセルに注目し、サイズ制御や薬剤分布について概観する。
Keywords: Polymer Micelle / DDS / Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering
バイオナノカプセル(ウイルス感染機構を備えたナノキャリア)を用いる生体内ピンポイントDDS の構築
Development of Bio-Nanocapsules (Nanocarriers Possessing Viral Infection Machinery) for in vivo Pinpoint DDS Carrier
黒田 俊一
Shun'ichi KURODA
<要旨> 多くのウイルスは、直径50~100 nmのナノ構造体であり、細網内皮系を巧妙に回避して体内を循環し、標的臓器・細胞に特異的に吸着し侵入することから、天然のナノマシンといえる。われわれは、ナノキャリア開発はウイルスから学ぶべき点が多いと考えており、本稿ではヒト肝臓特異的なB型肝炎ウイルスを模したバイオナノカプセルについて概説する。
Keywords: Virus / Liposomes / Reticuloendothelial System / Stealth Activity / Targeting Activity / Cell-Penetrating Activity / Nanocarrier / Nanomedicine
Design of Artificial Gene Carrier Based on the Quantitative Comparison of Intracellular Trafficking with Adenovirus
秋田 英万・原島 秀吉
Hidetaka AKITA, Hideyoshi HARASHIMA
<要旨> 遺伝子治療用ベクターの開発を考えるうえでは、効率的な核標的化(細胞内動態制御)がきわめて重要な課題である。一方、ウイルスとの細胞内動態比較により、分裂細胞を標的とする場合においては、核送達後の転写や翻訳過程も人工ベクターの大きな律速段階であることが明らかとなってきた。本稿では、細胞内動態制御法についてオーバービューするとともに、本情報に基づくベクターのデザインについて考察したい。
Keywords: Adenovirus / Artificial Vector / Gene Therapy / Intracellular Trafficking
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Therapeutic Technique Mediated by Photothermal Effect of Gold Nanoparticles
新留 琢郎・新留 康郎
<要旨> Gold nanoparticles that have an absorption band at near infrared region have attracted much attention. Since near infrared light can penetrate deeply into tissues, they can be used not only as heating device for hyperthermia but also as a control device of drug release from the gold surface. It will be a powerful medical device in the next generation.
Keywords: Gold Nanoparticle / Photothermal Effect / Infrared Light / Hyperthermia / Cancer Therapy / Drug Delivery
TRX, A Novel Cationic Lipid for Transfection having an Amidine Headgroup was Developed and Its SAXS Profiles Complexed with DNA
小岩井 一倫・清水 一浩・磯崎 正史
Kazunori KOIWAI, Kazuhiro SHIMIZU, Masashi ISOZAKI
<要旨> Cationic lipids are widely used for transfection of cultured cells, and are being investigated for in vivo gene transfer vectors. With the objective of developing new gene transfer vehicles, cationic amphiphiles have been sythesized and used to formulate small unilamellar vesicles with co-lipids (DOPE and DLPC). Amphiphatic compounds demonstrating an excellent performance in transfection are conjugates of amidinobenzene linked through a ether bond to alkyl substitutions (denoted by TRX).
Figure 4 presents SAXS profiles when TRX with co-lipids was mixed with different density of PBS. At the low density of PBS, the SAXS profiles show no peak, and as the density of PBS was increased, the SAXS profiles show three distinctive peaks. The relation of these peaks satisfies the ratio of 1:√3:2, indicating presence of the hexagonally packed cylinders. It is clearly evident that DNA was packed between cylinder and cylinder in the TRX with co-lipids and DNA complex.
Keywords: Cationic Lipids / TRX / Transfection / DNA / SAXS / Cylinder
Thermoresponsive Polymeric Micelles for Intelligent DDS
中山 正道・岡野 光夫
Masamichi NAKAYAMA, Teruo OKANO
<要旨> Nano-scale polymeric micelles possessing thermoresponsive coronas are formed via the multi-molecular assemblies of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based block copolymers in aqueous media. Thermoresponsive micelles show the enhanced release of incorporated drugs and internalization inside cells through the temperature-induced phase transition of thermoresponsive coronas. These unique functions are promising to be utilized for smart drug targeting.
Keywords: Drug Delivery System / Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) / Thermoresponsive Polymer / Block Copolymer / Polymeric Micelle / Targeting
Nanocarriers for Clinical treatments: Peptsome and Lactosome
木村 俊作
Shunsaku KIMURA
<要旨> Nanocarriers are expected to be applied for DDS as stealth carriers of signal agents, clinical drugs, and targeting ligands. Nanocarriers therefore have to be equipped with properties of escape from kidney excretion and liver excretion, evasion from the immune system and the complement system, and consequently prolonged in vivo blood clearance time. Peptosome and lactosome, which are self-assemblies of helices, satisfy these requirements by precise molecular design and are expected to be applied for translational researches.
Keywords: Nanocarriers / Peptosome / Lactosome / Imaging / DDS / Immune System / EPR Effect / ABC Phenomenon
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Recent Advances in Fast Photoswitchable Molecules
阿部 二朗
Jiro ABE
<要旨> Considerable interest has been focused on organic photochromic materials that change their color upon irradiation with light; the photogenerated species can be reversed to the initial species either thermally or by subsequent irradiation with a specific wavelength of light. In particular, thermally reversible photochromic molecules offer the opportunity to change and reset the molecular properties by simply turning a light source on and off. In this review, the brief history of the field is reviewed, and the key features characterizing fast photochromic molecules are described with representative papers.
Keywords: Photochromism / Molecular Switches / HABI / Bridged-Imidazole Dimer
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
Interesting and Useful; Is Both Possible?
杉安 和憲
<要旨> When I started my own research projects, I decided to synthesize “interesting” molecules; however, since then, I have been wondering what molecules are “interesting” at all and how they can be “useful” as well.