高分子 Vol.67 No.5
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特集 Internet of Polymers:IoTからIoP へ
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Internet of Polymers (IoP) in Living Organisms
出口 茂
<要旨> 生物は自己組織化によるボトムアッププロセスを利用してナノ・マイクロスケールのネットワーク構造を形成し、多様な機能を実現している。本稿ではカイメンとホウセキゾウムシを例に挙げ、生物に見られるネットワーク構造の特徴と、それらを模倣したバイオミメティック技術開発の可能性を紹介する。
Keywords: Self-Organization / Network / Biomimetics / Sustainability / Biodiversity
Synthesized Polymer Network with Autonomy like Living Phenomena
吉田 亮
<要旨> 高分子ネットワークで構成されたゲルは、高度な分子設計により種々の機能・物性を付加することができる。これまで多数の生体機能や生体応用を意識したインテリジェントなゲルが作られてきた。そのなかで、自励振動ゲルはIoPとして自律性を発現する合成高分子系の代表例である。本稿では、最初の発表から約20年を経過したその進化を紹介する。
Keywords: Polymer Gels / BZ Reaction / Self-Oscillation / Biomimetic Materials / Soft Actuators / Block Copolymers / Artificial Amoeba
State-of-the-Art Molecular Design Technology of High-Mobility Organic Semiconductors for Organic Electronics
岡本 敏宏・黒澤 忠法
Toshihiro OKAMOTO, Tadanori KUROSAWA
<要旨> 近年、キャリア移動度が10 cm2/Vsを超える印刷可能な有機半導体材料が報告されるようになり、有機半導体を用いた電子デバイスへの応用展開が活発化している。本稿では、一ランク上の移動度の実現のために重要となる有機半導体材料の分子設計技術について、筆者らが取り組んでいる最近の研究を紹介するとともに、今後の展望をまとめる。
Keywords: Organic Semiconductor / Pi-Electronic Core / Molecular Design / Molecular Vibration / Band-Like Transport / Solution Process / Field-Effect Transistor / Printed-Flexible Electronics
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Smart Polymers × IoT
荏原 充宏
Mitsuhiro EBARA
<要旨> Because “smart” polymers can respond to small changes in external stimuli with large discontinuous changes in their physical properties, development of smart polymer-based technologies will promise to impact medical treatment in multiple ways, providing health delivery services and new options for conventional therapies, especially together with IoT systems.
Keywords: Smart Polymers / Drug Delivery / Cancer Therapy / Biomaterials
Artificial Cell with Active Actomyosin
市川 正敏
Masatoshi ICHIKAWA
<要旨> An actively organizing network of actin and myosin proteins inside a spherical droplet was studied. The higher order fibrous network structure of the proteins drives the surface membrane of the droplet to fluctuate drastically. On the other hand, the cortical structure formed underneath the membrane contracts itself to make a buckling transition from the spherical shell shape into the collapsed shape. These model systems reconstituted partial aspects of biological phenomena on cell motions.
Keywords: Active Gel / Fluctuation / Non-Equilibrium / Actomyosin / Artificial Cell
Swarming Molecular Robots
角五 彰
<要旨> In this paper, we demonstrate that the swarming of DNA-functionalized microtubules propelled by surface-adhered kinesin motors can be rationally programmed and reversibly regulated by DNA signals. The chemically-fuelled microtubules, sliding on a surface, autonomously swarm and dissociate in response to input chemical or physical signals as a result of hybridization/dehybridization between the DNA interfaces. Single-stranded DNA serves as a chemical input and reversibly regulates the swarming of microtubules. Installation of a molecular photosensor further enabled photo-regulation of the swarming. In addition to the controlled swarming, we also regulated the swarming mode of the microtubules, i.e. swarming with translational or rotational motion, by tuning their physical and mechanical properties. The presented system serves as basic computer by executing simple mathematical operations, such as AND or OR operations, which are manifested by their swarming behavior.
Keywords: Molecular Robot / Swarm / Biomolecular Motor / DNA Processor / Photoresponsive DNA
Temperature-Responsive On-Off Switching of Target Recognition by Nanogel Particles
星野 友
<要旨> Stimuli responsive molecules are key components to realize functional molecular systems (IoP). This article provides a brief review about recent efforts to develop the temperature-responsive nanogels particles that can reversibly capture target molecules and molecular systems consisting of the particles.
Keywords: Nanogel / Molecular Recognition / Proton Imprinting / Themo-Electrochemical Cell / CO2 Absorbent
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
Planned Happenstance for Polymer Research
信川 省吾
<要旨> From my experiences in study of optical polymers, I noticed research findings are often obtained by chance, but also with wider perspective and persuasion. In the future, I would like to make new tough polymeric materials through new approaches, and sometimes with accompanying unexpected happenstance.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Molecular Design of Sorbents for Organic Solvents
佐田 和己・小門 憲太・須永 総玄
Kazuki SADA, Kenta KOKADO, Sokuro SUNAGA
<要旨> After the disaster in Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, the development of sorbents for organic solvents including oil has been attracting considerable interest among material scientists, due to increase of social interest against the large-scale pollution to natural environment. In this account, we summarize recent advances in designing such sorbents with high efficiency by the two different approaches. One is super-absorbent polymers for organic solvents with high swelling ability. The other is highly porous and hydrophobic materials with large surface areas such as sponges and carbon aerogels. Both of them have high sorption efficiency for organic solvents, and most of the latter have good performances for separation of oil from oil-water mixture.
Keywords: Sorbents / Oil Spill / Porous Material / Super-Absorbent Polymer / Gel / Sponge / Aerogel / Organic Solvents