高分子 Vol.68 No.8
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特集 集まれ!自己組織化が創り出すナノ材料
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Toroidal Supramolecular Polymers
新津 敬介・矢貝 史樹
Keisuke ARATSU, Shiki YAGAI
<要旨> 「環」は生体から宇宙まで遍在する意義深い構造である。しかし、トップダウン的にアプローチし難いナノスケールでこの構造を作ることは難しい。本稿では、ボトムアップ的なアプローチとして用いられる分子集合体からなる環状ナノ構造の形成やその機能、応用例について概説する。
Keywords: Supramolecular Polymer / Self-Assembly / Toroid / Ring / Topology / Hydrogen Bond
Advanced Semiconductor Lithography using Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers
東 司
Tsukasa AZUMA
<要旨> 高分子ブロック共重合体の誘導自己組織化を利用した半導体リソグラフィは、ハーフピッチ15 nm以細レベル、とくにシングルナノレベルの半導体回路パターンの微細化が必要なシリコン半導体デバイス量産技術を低コストで実現できる微細加工技術として注目されている。本稿では、ハーフピッチ15 nm以細のラインパターン対応の誘導自己組織化技術について報告する。
Keywords: Semiconductor / Lithography / Directed Self-Assembly / Block Copolymer / Polystyrene-Block-Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) / Metal Wire Circuit / Electrical Yield Verification / Defect
Development of Structural Color Materials by Colloidal Assembly
不動寺 浩
<要旨> コロイド粒子が規則配列したコロイド結晶は半世紀前より人工オパールとして製造されてきた。近年、フォトニック結晶への応用に端を発したコロイド結晶の研究では外的要因で構造色が変化する機能性に着目したセンサーや構造色材料としての応用が進められている。また、コロイド自己集合による量産可能な成膜プロセスの取り組みも始まっている。
Keywords: Colloidal Crystal / Photonic Crystal / Structural Color / Tunable Color / Strain Imaging / Self-Assembly / Film Coating / Lab to Market
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Molecular Monolayer Nanotubes
亀田 直弘
Naohiro KAMETA
<要旨> Self-organization of rationally-designed synthetic lipids in water produces nanotubes consisting of monolayer membranes of the lipids. Herein I describe our latest research topics about functionalized nanotubes. (I) Taylor-made nanotube channels are useful for formation of polymers with controlled conformation, size, and chirality. (II) Nanotube liquid crystals, based on side-by-side alignment of nanotubes in water, act as templates for growth of gold seeds to nanorods in the absence of surfactants. (III) Encapsulation of enzymes in photoresponsive transformable nanotube/nanocoil and continuous end capping with magnetic nanoparticles enabled us to construct bioreactors. The bioreactors allow control of enzymatic reactions by light irradiation and exhibit excellent kinetic parameters, reusability and recyclability, stabilization of encapsulated enzymes, and size selectivity for substrates. (IV) Photoresponsive shrinkable nanotubes are able to accelerate duplex formation of dinucleotides and release the duplexes into bulk solution. The squeezing out from the narrow nanotube channels is important for stabilization of the energetically unfavorable hydrogen-bonded base pair between the dinucleotides.
Keywords: Self-Organization / Lipids / Amphiphiles / Monolayer / Supramolecular Nanotubes / Nanochannels / Encapsulation / Release
Designing with Light for Novel Functionalities of Molecularly Aligned Films
久野 恭平
<要旨> Liquid crystal materials that intrinsically possess nano- to macro-scale ordered structures are the key for developing novel functionalities in the field of mechanics, electronics, and photonics. Furthermore, the arbitrary design of two or more dimensional molecular orientation patterns of liquid crystals enables one to enhance and/or manifest new functionalities. For inscribing and controlling the molecular orientation patterns, light stimulus is the most attractive choice due to its high spatiotemporal resolution and remote influence. Here, I introduce advanced techniques to optically control the molecular orientations: one is the common method of photoalignment, and the other is our newly developed method of scanning wave photopolymerization. In addition, I highlight the state-of-the-art trend in photonics applications of a few micrometer-thick polymeric films acting as lenses, prisms, holograms, and polarization converters, and provide some recent examples with two-dimensional molecular orientation patterns.
Keywords: Liquid Crystals / Molecular Orientation / Photoalignment / Photopolymerization / Photonics / Topological Lightwave / Diffractive Waveplate / Mechanics
Soft Materials Construction Based on Self-assembly of Filamentous Viruses
澤田 敏樹
Toshiki SAWADA
<要旨> Regularly assembled structures in a controlled manner provide notable excellent properties with great potentials in many fields, including nanotechnology and material science. Especially, biomolecular-based assemblies exhibit better control due to their monodispersity, and are utilized in diverse material fields. Recent studies have revealed that viruses such as filamentous M13 bacteriophages (M13 phages), with a specific affinity for artificial materials or biomolecules, can be utilized to produce various soft materials. Such materials composed of regularly assembled phages are described. It was found that functionalization through genetic engineering and liquid crystal formation-based regular orientation of M13 phages enabled their assemblies to be utilized as soft materials components.
Keywords: Filamentous Virus / M13 Bacteriophage / Phage Display / Liquid Crystal / Genetic Engineering
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
My Starting Point and Experimenting with Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Scattering
櫻木 美菜
<要旨> In this article, I will describe the incident that occurred during my maternity leave that sparked my interest in, and lead to my research focus on microemulsions for transdermal drug delivery systems via X-ray scattering. Performing this important research while maintaining work/life balance has been a challenge yet fulfilling.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Recent Trends on Synthesis of Functional Polymer Particles
大村 太朗・南 秀人
<要旨> Polymer particles are prepared by mainly heterogenous polymerization systems such as emulsion polymerization and dispersion polymerization. Obtained polymer particles have been used as film in many indsturial fields as paints, coatings and adhesives. Nowadays, much attention has been focused on applying them directly as particulate materials for electronics, cosmetics, and biomedical fields. Therefore, the control of particle morphology is essenstial part of functional polymer particles. Generally, polymer particles have spherical shape, however, functional polymer particles such as hollow and non-spherical particles can be prepared by thermodynamic and kinetic methods. Moreover, polymer particles can be used as the building blocks of colloidal structure which generates unique optical, rheological and electrical properties that are expected to have applications in functional devices. In this review, we introduce recent development of synthesis of functinal polymer particles, colloidal strucrure and their applications.
Keywords: Polymer Particles / Morphology / Particle Shape / Colloidal Structure / Biopolymer