高分子 Vol.70 No.7
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特集 生物を模倣する高分子
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Biomimetics in Germany-Research Embedded in Network and Standardization Iwiza TESARI, Rainer ERB, and Claus MATTHECK
<要旨> Even if the terms networks and standardization do not immediately come to mind when thinking of biomimetics research, they have been supporting it in Germany for years. BIOKON, the German Biomimetics Network of Excellence, promotes exchange between scientists and especially between research and application through networking. Structured and continuous knowledge transfer at the interface between science and industry is essential to stay ahead in the innovation race. Standards also help bridging the gap between the wide range of different research disciplines and practical application. They create trust and provide users in business and industry access to the tremendous potential of biomimetics. Here, an insight into the German networking and standardization activities in the field of biomimetics will be given. In addition, some selected research fields of biomimetics in Germany are briefly described. This concerns self-cleaning surfaces, optimization methods and biopolymers.
Keywords: Biomimetics / Standardization / BIOKON / Network / Optimzation / Self-cleaning Surfaces / Biopolymers
Toward the Creation of Artificial Silk that Mimics the Hierarchical Structure of Spider Dragline
沼田 圭司
<要旨> クモの牽引糸は、その強靭な物性から、構造材料など幅広い分野への応用が期待されているが、その形成機構は明らかになっていない。牽引糸を構成するシルクタンパク質の分子機構に迫り、いかに牽引糸と同様の階層構造を再現するか。筆者の研究グループの研究成果と世界各国の研究開発の現状について概説する。
Keywords: Spider Silk / Major Ampullate Spidroin (MaSp) / Structural Protein / Hierarchical Structure / Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation (LLPS) / Fiber
バイオミメティクス・インフォマティクスを支える観察技術 NanoSuit法による生きたままの生物表面解析
Observation Technique that Supports Biomimetics and Informatics: Living Biological Surface Analysis by the NanoSuit Method
針山 孝彦
<要旨> 生体適合性高分子溶液から試料表面に薄膜形成し、電子顕微鏡内で、生物試料をぬれたまま・生きたままの状態で簡単に観察する技術を確立した。この技術は、生物のありのままの姿の観察を必要とするバイオミメティクス研究に不可欠なものであり、バイオミメティクス・インフォマティクスを支える強いツールとして、多方面での利用が可能である。
Keywords: NanoSuit® / Nano-Polymer / Electron Microscope / Living Organisms / Thin Membrane / Morphology / Biomimetics
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Adhesive Materials - Learning from A Clingfish Sucker Disk
平井 悠司・辻岡 一眞
<要旨> Clingfishs rapidly adhere on a rocky surface under water by their ventral sucker disk. The sucker disk margin consistes of hierarchical structures; nanofilaments formed on the micron-scale papillae, and the structures were completley covered by sticky mucus. To investigate the effect of the nanofilaments, we demonstrate the preparation and the adhesion measurement of the mimicked structures. The nanofilaments were prepared by hot-press of a polystyrene sheet using anodic aluminum oxide as a mold, and simply spin-coated by the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). As results of the adhesion measurements, adhesive strength of the mimicked structures were stronger than that of the flat PDMS surface. Furthermore, the results were also supported by the finite element method simulations. According to these results, the nanofilaments of the clingfish acts as a hard bracing to disperce deformation stress for enhancing adhesive strength, and this strategy can be applicable for a wide variety of the field.
Keywords: Biomimetics / Sucker Disk / Adhesive / Clingfish / Nanostructure
Bio-Inspired On-Surface Synthesis of Nano Carbon Materials
信末 俊平・中江 隆博・坂口 浩司
Shunpei NOBUSUE, Takahiro NAKAE, Hiroshi SAKAGUCHI
<要旨> Chemical vapor deposition is a powerful tool to fabricate carbon nanomaterials, which consists of decomposition and reconstruction process of precursors at high temperature. On the contrary, biomimetics has recently been attracting a great interest to fabricate biomaterials at room temperature by mimicking the nature of biological systems. However, on-surface synthesis of electronic materials at high temperature based on the natural system has never been reported. We propose a concept of bio-inspired ‘conformation-controlled surface catalysis’ analogous to the biological catalyst, an enzyme, which is useful for production of new nanocarbon materials. We demonstrate the two-zone chemical vapor deposition of the ‘Z-bar-linkage’ precursor, which represents two terphenyl units that are linked like a ‘Z’, exhibiting a flexible geometry that allows it to adopt chiral conformations with height-asymmetry on a Au(111) surface, resulting in the efficient formation of acene-type graphene nanoribbons. These cascade reactions include the production of self-assembled homochiral polymers with a planar conformation, followed by efficient stepwise dehydrogenation via a conformation-controlled mechanism.
Keywords: Biomimetics / Bio-Inspired Surface Catalysis / Homochiral Polymerization / 2-Zone Chemical Vapor Deposition / Graphene Nanoribbons
Superhydrophobic Materials Inspired by Porcupinefish
内藤 昌信
Masanobu NAITO
<要旨> Superhydrophobic materials with micro/nanotextured surfaces are of great interest for applications such as self-cleaning, antifouling, anti-icing and corrosion protection. Such micro/nanotextured surfaces are the key to high water repellency. However, such textures are brittle and can be easily damaged if the material is deformed, scratched, or cut away. Therefore, the challenge is to develop superhydrophobic materials that can maintain high water repellency even after experiencing such mechanical deformation and damage. Here, we report a superhydrophobic flexible material with a porcupinefish-like structure, which is resistant to abrasion/scratching/slicing/droplet impact/bending/twisting, based on a composite of ZnO and poly(dimethylsiloxane) in micrometer-scale tetrapod geometry.
Keywords: Superhydrophobic / Durability
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
What I Learned from Alkyl Chains
井上 悟
Satoru INOUE
<要旨> In 2015, the author, who specialized at that time in the development of organic electronics materials, published an essential paper that revealed the effect of alkyl chain length dependence on layered crystalline organic semiconductors. In this paper, the author introduces the history of the development while looking back on the author’s experience.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Recent Acyclic N-Vinylamide
網代 広治・吉田 裕安材
Hiroharu AJIRO, Hiroaki YOSHIDA
<要旨> Recent research about acyclic N-vinylamides is reviewed. The reported polymerization control approaches are introduced, using an organotellurium compound and RAFT reagents. The current functional gels with N-vinylamides are introduced, focussing on the telechelic crosslinkers, physical gels, and the crosslinkers bearing both methacrylate and N-vinyl moieties. The surface modification of particles using poly(N-vinylamide)s are also introduced, for the biocompatibility and the interaction with biomolecules. The nanogels and microgels using N-vinylamides and the successive hydrolysis to convert to polyvinylamine are also mentioned. Recent applications with poly(N-vinylamide)s are also discussed. It is known that the cationic moieties are available for the capture of carbon dioxide, so the polyvinylamine functions after the hydrolysis of poly(N-vinylformamide) are employed. Some recent research on the separation of carbon dioxide and nitrogen are introduced, as well as the metal ion capture capabilities. The copolymers were also used for various drug delivery systems. Finally, the recent studies on the possible use for the inhibition of gas hydrate are summarized.
Keywords: Acyclic / N-Vinylamide / Polyvinylamine / Polymerization Control / Gel / Drug Delivery System / Carbon Dioxides Capture / Gas Hydra
ポリマーセレクト Polymer Select
Research on Elastomer Based Composite Materials and Their Future Development
西 敏夫
Toshio NISHI
<要旨> World trend, domestic development, collaboration with industry, from tire to elastomeric seismic-protection isolators, international standardization, and their future development of elastomers and elastomer based composite materials are presented based on the author’s experience and viewpoints. In the future, advance on polymer nanotechnology and its application to polymer megatechnolgy for the society will become very important.
Keywords: Natural Rubber / Elastomer Based Composite Materials / Polymer Nanotechnology / Super Fuel Efficient Tire Materials / Elastomeric Seismic-protection Isolators / Polymer Megatechnology / International Standardization