高分子 Vol.60 No.8
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特集 未来の自動車を支える高分子
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Polypropylene Materials for Automotive Application
藤田 祐二・新井 雅之
Yuji FUJITA and Masayuki ARAI
<要旨> Polypropylene has been in use for many applications because of its environmental properties and excellent practical performance such as moldability and mechanical properties. Especially for automotive use, polypropylene is used widely for products such as bumper or inertial parts, and the weight fraction of polypropylene in one vehicle is estimated at more than 5%. In this report the history of technical development of automotive polypropylene is described.
Keywords: Polypropylene / Automotive Materials / Mechanical Properties / Moldability / Morphology
Broadening Automotive Applications of Engineering Plastics
菅原 誠
<要旨> Engineering plastics are broadening their automotive parts applications. As well as the parts weight reduction for the improved fuel efficiency and the parts integration for more efficient manufacturing, engineering plastics are supporting the automotive industry's effort of driving for a more sustainable society by reducing volatile compounds emission and fossil raw materials consumption. Engineering plastics are also answering to the consumers' expectation such as safety and driving comfort. New movements of automotive application development are discussed.
Keywords: Engineering plastic / Automotive / Weight reduction / Sustainability / Safety
FRP 材料
山中 亨・山口 晃司
<要旨> In this paper, authors report the history of Fiber Reinforecd Plastic (FRP) use in automobiles to reduce the weight of the automotive body from 1940's to 2000s. Also, research of high cycle cure epoxy and high cycle manufacturing system is introduced for mass production cars. At last, demand of matrix resin is described based on micro mechanics of composites.
Keywords: FRP / Automotive / Body / Manufacturing / High Cycle Cure Epoxy Resin / High Cycle Manufacturing System / Micro Mechanics
Polymer Science and Technologies on Fuel Cells and Batteries for Automobiles
山口 猛央
<要旨> A secure and readily accessible supply of energy is important. In this context, automobiles are changing away from using engines to electricity devices, such as batteries and fuel cells. At the same time, our life style should be changed because of the optimized usage of the energy. If societies are to be sustainable, the innovation of environmentally benign energy devices is essential. The key is always the development of innovative materials. Systematic material design methodology, which is meaning a hierarchical systematic thinking from molecular level to application level in a device, is one of the key elements to make a breakthrough in these complicated fields, such as new key materials and devices.
Keywords: Automobile / Fuel Cell / Battery / Polymer Electrolyte / Membrane / Catalyst / PEFC / Alkaline Fuel Cell
トピックス COVER STORY:Topics and Products
Polypropylene/Poly (lactic acid) Polymer Alloy for Reduction of Environmental Load
亀尾 幸司
<要旨> With a view to devising a countermeasure to global environmental problems (i.e. depletion of petroleum resources, critical growth of carbon dioxides, etc.), poly (lactic acid) (PLA), one of the most promising bio-based polymers, is to be positively utilized in automotive and consumer-electric industries. However, PLA has several critical drawbacks, such as low impact strength, low thermal resistance, low moisture durability and low processability due to low rate of crystallization. In order to overcome the disadvantage of PLA, a novel PP/PLA alloy, where PLA is incorporated in a PP matrix, has been proposed and conceived. By the optimization of compatibilizer and elastomer, PLA is successfully dispersed in sub-micron order in a PP matrix. At last, the bio-based automotive interior parts, which fulfill the required performance, appearance and mass-productivity, have been successfully developed.
Keywords: Polypropylene / Poly (lactic acid) / Bio-based Polymer / Polymer Alloy / Reactive Processing / Composite
Fuel-Efficient Tires and Elastomer
柳岡 正起
<要旨> This article presents an overview of current R&D activities on fuel-efficient tires. Nanostructure-Oriented Properties Control Technology (NanoPro-TechTM) has been employed to effectively develop tires that have reduced rolling resistance without sacrificing safety performance in wet conditions. This technology allows the desirable characteristics of rubber to manifest, and controls its microstructure through the molecular design of its components.
Keywords: Fuel-Efficiency / Rolling Resistance / Wet Grip / Loss Property
High Heat Resistant and High Thermal Conductive Resins for Power Semiconductor Modules
高橋 昭雄
<要旨> Power semiconductor devices are key devices for carbon dioxide reduction technology. Here, we focus on the power semiconductor device module of the automotive electronics field that is holding more than 50% of the power device market and we introduce the optimum properties and the examples for polymer materials applying to the future power module.
Keywords: Power Semiconductor Device / Polymer Material / Automotive Electronics
Automobiles Made of Plants: A Dream Inspired by Cellulose Nanofibers
矢野 浩之
Hiroyuki YANO
<要旨> The plant cell wall consists of a cellulose nanofiber or a cellulose microfibril bundle. Since the nanofibers are bundles of semi-crystalline extended cellulose chains, their thermal expansion is as low as that of quartz whilst their strength is five times that of steel. This report summarizes the research work on the production of nanofibers from plant resources and their application in polymer composites.
Keywords: Cellulose / Nanofibers / Nanocomposites / Automobile / High Strength / Low Thermal Expansion / Optical Transparency
グローイングポリマー Growing Polymers: A Personal Account
Being Dignified, and Moreover Warm, as Such One is Gentle
井改 知幸
Tomoyuki IKAI
<要旨> My fruitful research life is always under the watchful eye of the respectable professors. This personal account is summarized as a token of great appreciation for such former teachers and as a fresh determination of my further growth.
For the Greatest “Plamodel”
中野 幸司
<要旨> This personal account describes my research life and my driving force for researches by making an analogy to plamodels.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
Supramolecular Chemistry-Mimetic Nanoparticle Assembly
新倉 謙一・居城 邦治
Kenichi NIIKURA and Kuniharu IJIRO
<要旨> Self-assembly systems of molecules have been widely developed over the last 30 years as “supramolecular chemistry” and the concept of self-assembly has been used increasingly in large scales beyond small molecules. This review presents the recent progress in nanoparticle assembly, in particular, from the view of the mimicry of supramolecular chemistry. Various approaches to create desired array of nanoparticles have been explored so far. Here, we focus on the surface modification of nanoparticles with anisotropy. The anisotropic modification enables particle-particle interactions with specific direction. The modification of various shapes of particles can also lead to specific self-assembly of nanoparticles that is different from the sphere particles. Although the surface of nanoparticles is narrow, approaches for the surface modification are unlimited and these will open the door to create various types of arrays in the macroscopic scale, leading to wide applications for plasmonic and electronic devices.
Keywords: Self-Assembly / Nanoparticle / Surface Modification / Polymer / DNA / Virous / Functional Material