高分子 Vol.68 No.6
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特集 カーボン系高分子
展望 COVER STORY: Highlight Reviews
Carbon Nanotubes as a Polymer
藤ヶ谷 剛彦
Tsuyohiko FUJIGAYA
<要旨> カーボンナノチューブ(CNT)は導電性高分子の一種である。ただし「表面」をもつナノ粒子でもあり、分子分散状態を理解するためにはコロイド分散溶液としての取り扱いが必要になる。その取り扱いから垣間見えるCNTのユニークさの一端を紹介したい。
Keywords: Carbon Nanotube / Dispersion / Colloid / Semiconducting / Polymer Coating / Surface Engineering / Near IR / Surfactant
Bottom-Up Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons as Structurally Well-Defined, Quasi-One-Dimensional Carbon Materials
成田 明光
Akimitsu NARITA
<要旨> 有機・高分子化学の手法を用いたボトムアップ合成により、構造の明確な擬一次元カーボン系高分子、グラフェンナノリボンが得られる。さまざまな構造のグラフェンナノリボンが報告され、その多彩な性質や機能が明らかとなってきた。本項では、グラフェンナノリボンのボトムアップ合成研究とその機能や応用可能性について概説する。
Keywords: Graphene / Graphenene Nanoribbon / Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon / Cyclodehydrogenation / Suzuki Polymerization / Yamamoto Polymerization / Diels-Alder Polymerization / Surface Synthesis
Liquid Nanocarbons
中西 尚志
<要旨> フラーレン、カーボンナノチューブ、グラフェン類は、次元・幾何学構造に由来する反応性、光電子物性、機械物性などの魅力ゆえに、20年以上もの間、ナノサイエンス・材料化学分野を牽引してきた。これらナノカーボンをバルク材料化するきわめてエキゾチックな手法として「液体化」がある。ここでは、ナノカーボン類の液体材料化戦略と応用の可能性を紹介する。
Keywords: Room-Temperature Liquid / Fullerene / Carbon Nanotube / Graphene / Carbon Quantum Dots / Alkyl-π Engineering / Self-Assembly
トピックス COVER STORY: Topics and Products
Carbon Materials Retaining the Structures of Precursor Organic Crystals
西原 洋知
<要旨> One of the recent challenging targets in the field of carbon materials is the synthesis of well-organized nanocarbons and carbon-based materials by chemically sophisticated techniques. In this context, carbonization of organic-based crystalline solids such as metal-organic frameworks and organic crystals has been intensively investigated to date. However, organic-based crystals are always converted into intrinsically amorphous carbonaceous frameworks, and the structural regularity, as well as the major molecular features of the precursors, is totally lost by carbonization. We have recently demonstrated the successful conversion of organic crystals into carbonaceous frameworks that inherit the ordered structure as well as the molecular fragments of the original crystals. The resulting ordered carbonaceous frameworks exhibit an intermediate structure, between an organic-based framework and carbon material, with advantages from both structures.
Keywords: Metal-Organic Frameworks / Covalent-Organic Frameworks / Porous Carbons / Carbon Alloys
Graphdiyne: 2D Carbon Created by Polymer Synthesis
坂本 良太・西原 寛
<要旨> The nanosheet is a 2D matter, the thickness of which reaches less than 1 nm. In addition to inorganic nanosheets like graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, recent progress in synthetic and analytical chemistry allows researcher to create molecule-based nanosheets. This article reviews graphdiyne, a kind of 2D allotrope of graphene, which belongs to both inorganic and molecule-based nanosheet series.
Keywords: Graphdiyne / Interfacial Synthesis / 2D Carbon / Nanocarbon / Molecule-Based Nanosheet
Sputtered Nanocarbon Film Electrodes Capable of Controlling sp2/sp3 Ratio
加藤 大・丹羽 修
Dai KATO, Osamu NIWA
<要旨> This topic introduces our developed sputtered nanocarbon film electrodes and their applications to sensing platforms for trace amounts of various analytes. We have been studying nanocarbon film electrodes formed by an electron cyclotron resonance sputtering or an unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The film provides a nanocrystalline sp2 and sp3 mixed bond structure with an atomically flat surface (surface roughness of 0.1 nm) and high conductivity without doping. The film electrode has excellent properties including a low background current, a wide electrochemical potential window, and little surface fouling, while maintaining relatively high electrode activity. These characteristics allow the detection of various analytes, especially ultratrace amounts of biomolecules. For example, the nanocarbon film electrode can quantitatively measure all the DNA bases and cerebral gliotransmitter, which are difficult to measure at conventional carbon electrodes.
Keywords: Sputtering / Nanocarbon Film / sp2/sp3 / Electroanalysis / Biosensing
Fluidized-Bed Production and Battery Application of Long Carbon Nanotubes
野田 優
Suguru NODA
<要旨> Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting much attention owing to its unique 1D nanostructure and properties. CNTs can be synthesized by various methods, and the characteristics of their production methods and resulting structures are introduced. Rapid, millimeter-scale growth of CNTs on 2D substrates has been established, and such CNTs can now be produced in 3D by fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition using spherical ceramic beads. Acetylene is converted to 99 wt%-pure, sub-millimeter-long, few-wall CNTs efficiently at 70% yield in 0.3 s residence time. Self-supporting, sponge-like papers can be easily fabricated by dispersion and filtration, which work as light-weight, 3D current collectors for rechargeable batteries. A full lithium ion cell of LiCoO2-1 wt% CNT cathode and graphite-1 wt% CNT anode is developed without using metallic foils nor polymer binder. CNTs have rich varieties in their structure and production methods. They can be regarded as polymer made of only carbon, and will have rich opportunities for practical applications.
Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes / Chemical Vapor Deposition / Fluidized Bed / Battery
グローイングポリマー Polymer Science and I: A Personal Account
My Heroes
鈴木 大介
Daisuke SUZUKI
<要旨> My research experiences benefitting by learning from my heroes is described. I do research enjoying both independent action and working as a team with collaborators. As successful as this is I hope that also the next 10 years will be such a fruitful research life.
高分子科学最近の進歩 Front-Line Polymer Science
States of Water Molecules at the Biointerface – What is the Roles of Intermediate Water ?
田中 賢
<要旨> When the biomaterials come into contact with the biological fluids, water molecules immediately adsorb onto the surface of the materials. To understand the origin of the crucial roles of water molecules in biological interfaces, it is necessary to relate particular stats of hydration water to various physicochemical properties of hydrated polymers. Here, advances of intermediate water concept are reviewed. This paper provides an overview of the progress made in the design of multi-functional biomedical polymers by controlling the bio-interfacial water states.
Keywords: Water / Biomaterial / Surface / Interface / Biointerface / Cell Adhesion / Cold Crystallization / Intermediate Water